Generating .NET Classes from the FpML XSD Schema (Introduction to using FpML with .NET Tools Part 3)


Part one of this series of articles looked at how we can use Visual Studio to examine the FpML XML schema documents (XSDs), and the associated example XML instance documents.

Part two of the series looked in some detail at the structure of an FpML trade XML document, and showed how to investigate its validation against the schemas using Visual Studio.

This article will show how to generate .NET classes in C# from the XML schema documents. These classes can in theory be used to load FpML documents into objects. These objects can then be manipulated by the code and saved out as FpML. However, there are some problems with the Microsoft tools for doing this, as we shall see.


FpML is a powerful way of representing financial products in a standard way. It can be used to pass trade data between financial institutions in an XML format that both parties can understand. It can also be used to pass trade data between computer systems within a financial institution. If all systems know about FpML then we have a standard platform-independent human-readable representation of our data that everyone can use.

Clearly there are some disadvantages to using FpML in this way (it’s very verbose, and we will probably need to modify it for our own needs anyway, in which case it stops being standard). However there’s a prevailing view that FpML is a good place to start when defining what trade data and messages we will pass around in a service-oriented architecture in a bank.

However if we want to use trade data passed to us as FpML we need to get it into a format we can program against. Obviously if we are programming in .NET languages we want to have objects, or even DataSets. Furthermore we’d like to be able to modify those objects or DataSets and then turn them back into valid FpML documents.

The XML Schema Definition Tool (xsd.exe)

Microsoft have provided an ‘XML Schema Definition Tool’ called xsd.exe that purports to allow us to do this. It claims to be able to turn XSDs into classes. These classes can then be used to automatically load associated XML instance documents into objects, and back into XML again after manipulation. xsd.exe is also capable of creating DataSets from XSD files.

Obviously loading XML instance documents into objects is XML deserialization, and turning them back into XML is serialization. Once we have the classes we can use .NET’s standard serialization mechanisms for this.

As we shall see, this doesn’t work particularly well with the FpML schemas.

Generating C# Classes from FpML Schemas

To use xsd.exe to generate C# classes is relatively straightforward:

  1. 1. Start a Visual Studio command prompt (this is under ‘Microsoft Visual Studio/Visual Studio Tools’ on your start menu).
  2. Navigate to a folder where the FpML XSD files are. If you created the console application used in parts 1 and 2 of this series of articles navigate to the project folder (which has the XSDs in it).
  3. Run the command below:
    xsd /c fpml-main-4-2.xsd xmldsig-core-schema.xsd
    This generates a file called fpml-main-4-2_xmldsig-core-schema.cs which contains the classes we need.

Note that the /c parameter asks xsd to generate classes. There is also a /d parameter that asks xsd to generate DataSets. We will discuss this option later.

Note also that we only need reference the root schema file (fpml-main-4-2.xsd) for this to work: the other schema files are referenced from this file (with include statements) and xsd can work this out. However xsd can’t work out what to do with the xmldsig-core-schema.xsd file unless we tell it to process it. This is because only the namespace is referenced in the schema files, not the file itself.

Using the Generated C# Classes

If we look at the fpml-main-4-2_xmldsig-core-schema.cs file we see that we have nearly 37,000 lines of code, including over 650 classes. As you’d expect these classes use .NET’s XML serialization attributes throughout, so we can serialize into and deserialize from XML correctly. The root class is Document.

To use these classes we need to create an XmlSerializer object based on the root Document in code. This is standard .NET serialization code:

        XmlSerializer xmlSerializer = new XmlSerializer(typeof(Document));

Then in theory we should be able to deserialize any FpML document into these classes using the XmlSerializer. The syntax we’d use for this is as below:

        internal Document DeserializeXMLToDocument(FileInfo inputXMLFile)
            using (FileStream fileStream = File.OpenRead(inputXMLFile.FullName))
                return (Document)xmlSerializer.Deserialize(fileStream);

Once we’ve deserialized into objects based on our classes, we should be able to serialize those back into XML. Clearly the final XML should be the same as the initial XML. The syntax for the serialization is as below:

        internal void SerializeDocumentToXML(Document document, FileInfo outputXMLFile)
            using (FileStream outFileStream = new FileStream(outputXMLFile.FullName, FileMode.Create))
                xmlSerializer.Serialize(outFileStream, document);

This is all standard .NET XML serialization code.

First Attempt to Use the Generated Classes

We can write a basic harness that uses our generated classes and the code above to attempt to deserialize and serialize FpML files.

A version of this is available. It tries to deserialize the ird_ex01_vanilla_swap.xml that was examined in part 2 of this series of articles.

Unfortunately the classes generated by xsd.exe have a number of problems, and unless we correct these the basic harness will not work. In fact we can’t even create the XmlSerializer object successfully with the generated code.

Part four of this series of articles will examine the various problems with the code that xsd.exe has generated, and will discuss how to correct them.

Corrected Generated Classes and a Working Harness

Corrected generated classes are available. As will be discussed in part four this code has been corrected such that it appears to work in most circumstances. However we cannot be certain that it is free of all bugs.

A version of the harness that uses the corrected code is also available. As you can see if you run it, this does correctly deserialize and then reserialize ird_ex01_vanilla_swap.xml.


This article has shown that in theory we can generate classes from the FpML XSDs using xsd.exe. We should then be able to deserialize FpML documents into these classes, manipulate the resulting objects, and then reserialize back into valid FpML documents. However, xsd.exe has some problems that prevent this from working correctly.

Part four of this series of articles will look in more detail at the problems in the generated code, and how to fix them.

Licensing of FpML Specifications

The FpML Specifications of this document are subject to the FpML Public License (the “License”); you may not use the FpML Specifications except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at
The FpML Specifications distributed under the License are distributed on an “AS IS” basis, WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the specific language governing rights and limitations under the License.
The Licensor of the FpML Specifications is the International Swaps and Derivatives Association, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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